Artevani, Vineyard Sardalishvili
The taste and properties of wine, not only affects grape variety and place of growth, but also the production technology. Because of the technology, all wines are divided into red and white. Technical features - this is probably the main difference in between Georgian wines. Every winemaking country grows their own grapes and the technology usually differs slightly. The are three core technology of wine production in Georgia: European, Kakheti and Imereti.
In Europe, grapes piled in the wooden pelvis, then crumple by barefoot and juice is collected in a container and sent to roam. Rove usually just juice. If it's red wine, then leave the skins, seeds and twigs but always cleaned because they spoil the taste. First, it was done in the ancient Greece and Rome, but now the wine is made in France and all other countries are guided by France. The consequence of this technology - a small extract of wine. Reduced astringency, a smoother taste, without extremes. There are deviations, but it is a typical wine. The wines made using this technology in Georgia are - Gurjaani, Napareuli, Manavi and Tsinandali. For Europeans, this wine will be clear and close. But this is a recent phenomenon.
Harvested grapes for processing is delivered in a special room "Marani"(winery). The grapes must be crushed and turning into mush together with seeds and twigs. The resulting mass is transported into a large ceramic jug - Kvevri, aka clay pots. The pots are buried in the ground and only the opening is at floor level. The capacity of such pots reach 500 decaliters. Dipping into the ground, Kvevri allows to achieve a relatively constant temperature (about 14 C) during fermentation of wort, as well as during storage. This allows you to save quite a long time impeccable quality wine. In Georgia, in the preparation of grape mash, grape usually crushed by foot, it is the most gentle method for producing mash, because the bones are not damaged, so when it being crushed it stays attached and gives the wine a strong bitterness. Fermentation of red wine is 4-5 days directly to the pulp, and then the juice is separated from the pulp and poured into a separate container where there is secondary fermentation. Further, the pulp gets squeezed again to extract remaining juice. For white wine fermentation is performed on pulp until it is finished, usually, it takes 7-8 days. The grape juice fermented on pulp gives the wine a pleasant astringency, which is characteristic for Georgian wines. Wine material wanders there 3 or 4 months with the skin, seeds and twigs. The chemical consequence of this technology- a lot goes into extractives wine from skin, seeds and twigs. As a result, we have a stronger flavour, tart and rich. But in fact, it is just different samples, such is Kakheti wine-Mukuzani. In Kakheti, the wine polyphenols significantly greater percentage. They are useful for health, and the rougher, more useful. Production by Kakheti technology: Saperavi Mukuzani, Rkatsitelli, Tibaani, Kakheti, Sameba, Shuamta and more. I advise you to compare Mukuzani and Napareuli. Grapes and geography are the same, but technologies are different.
It is a cross between the first and second technology. Wine materials infused a little less than Kakheti - one and a half or two months. Infused also with seeds and skin, but without branches. Result: about the same amount of alcohol, but higher acidity. Imeretian wine is less tart, but the taste is smoother. The wines produced by this technology are - Tbilisuri, Tsitska Svir, Dimi. Special case: a naturally semi-sweet wine. This method was originally from Racha-Lechkhum. The essence of the method is that the grapes are harvested during periods of increased sugar, and then the wine is fermented at a low temperature of about 4-5 degrees. In Racha Lechkhumy cooler than in Kakheti, and that's why it has the special temperature conditions. Wine wanders slowly, sugar is partially consumed by yeast and it turns into semi-sweet wine. In addition, slow fermentation promotes saturation of wine with carbon dioxide. These wines should be stored in the cold and served chilled. This is not champagne or sparkling wine, but there are bubbles. We must know that there are simpler production technologies of this wine, however, the quality is not as good. We must remember, that the natural semi-sweet wines are not aged too long. Five-year Khvanchkara does not exist. In France, there is so-called "lock model" of wine production. This means, that the cultivation of grapes, creating wines and bottling- are concentrated in the same hands.